Uncontrolled distribution of microflora in isolated spaces can cause in man different allergic reactions on the skin, hampered respiration, lacrimation, cold, etc. Sources of such reactions can be not only microorganisms themselves, but also their metabolites in the form of shifting excretions, products of decomposition of substances, affected by microbiological influence, spores of microorganisms, accumulating in air, etc. Such situation is characteristic mainly of kindergartens, hospitals and other objects, where people have to be in contact with each other for a long time in isolated premises.
Of special importance is formation and distribution of microflora at space stations, where cosmonauts' general state must be maintained at a high level for long. The experience, accumulated within the limits of Russian and international cosmic programs, has shown that in the conditions of piloted flights, microorganisms are man's constant ecological partner.
Thus, microorganisms are constantly found in the air, on the surfaces of the interior and equipment of International Space Stations. For example, in the course of 13 main expeditions and 11 expeditions concerning visits to International Space Stations (ISS), there were discovered 76 species of microorganisms, including conditioned-pathogenic bacteria and fungi, as well as organisms-technophiles, that can cause biocorrosion of metals. Microflora can also damage different panels and other polymer coatings, even wire insulation. Besides, various toxins and other gaseous components, harmful for man, can also get into the atmosphere.
The main source of excreting bacteria and microscopic fungi and viruses are people. Feed products and equipment are also sources of microbiological contaminations. In the course of current and past space flights there was worked out a reliable system of sanitary-hygienic measures, eliminating the negative effect of microbes on men in the closed media. However, due to the i ... Читать далее