Cellular Automata (CAs) – parallel information processing systems that consists of infinity intercommunicating identical Mealy automata (elementary automata). We can interpret CAs as a theoretical basis of artificial high parallel information processing systems. From the logical standpoint a CA is an infinite automaton with specifical internal structure. The CA theory can be considered as structural and dynamical theory of the infinite automata. At that, CA models can serve as an excellent basis for modeling of many discrete processes, representing interesting enough independent objects for research too. Recently, the undoubted interest to the CA problems has arisen anew, and in this direction many remarkable results have been obtained. The CA–axiomatics provides three fundamental properties such as homogeneity, localness and parallelism of functioning. If in a similar computing model we shall with each elementary automaton associate a separate microprocessor then it is possible to unrestrictedly increase the sizesof similar computing system without any essential increase of its temporal and constructive expenses, required for each new expansion of the computing space, and also without any overheads connected to coordination of functioning of an arbitrary supplementary quantity of elementary microprocessors. In the work a brief historical survey of the cellular automata is presented.