V. V. BELYAKOV
Doctor of Historical Sciences
Meeting the energy needs of States is an important global task. Energy is the core of economic and social progress." This statement begins the section "Energetika" of the yearbook " Egypt. 2008", published by the Egyptian Ministry of Information1.
This task is all the more important, the higher the rate of development of the country's economy. And Egypt has been making progress in recent years. Even in the context of the global economic crisis, GDP growth in fiscal year 2008/2009 (fiscal year ending June 30) was 4.7%2. In the previous two years, it exceeded 7%3. Therefore, an appropriate energy base is also required.
NOT JUST OIL AND GAS
Egypt has a variety of energy sources. First of all, it is oil and gas. Their share in electricity generation is 86.8%4.
Renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly important. Today, the main one is water. The largest hydroelectric power station on the Nile (the high-rise Aswan dam) with a capacity of 2,100 MW was built in the 1960s with the assistance of Soviet specialists and using Soviet equipment. Smaller hydroelectric power stations exist on the old Aswan dam, on the water-lifting dams in Esna, Nag Hammadi and Assiut. However, according to experts, the potential of hydropower is almost exhausted. Its further development is possible mainly due to the modernization of power equipment.
In recent years, three wind farms have been built in Egypt. They are built in Zaafaran on the Gulf of Suez, in Hurghada and in Sharm al-Sheikh. The capacity of each of these power stations is relatively small5, but they play a significant role in providing electricity to areas far from the Nile Valley and Delta. On the coast of the Gulf of Suez of the Red Sea, a northerly wind is constantly blowing. It was his energy that the Egyptians put at their service.
Solar energy is also increasingly being used in Egypt, as clouds are rare visitors in this country. At first, solar panels were installed only ... Read more