Libmonster ID: EE-574
Author(s) of the publication: E. I. SPIVAKOVSKY

Soviet historians have made remarkable progress in studying a number of problems of the recent history of Romania. They introduced a lot of new documentary materials and created a number of serious works. In 1963-1965, monographs were published on the most important problems of the country's recent history1, a collection of articles "New and Modern History of Romania"2 was published, the generalizing work "History of Modern and Modern Romania"3 was completed, and articles were published in scientific journals on a wide range of issues. Since the aspects of the issues raised in all these works are very diverse, the purpose of this review is to consider one of them - the range of problems of the revolutionary struggle in Romania in 1918-1941. The review is based on the "History of Modern and Contemporary Romania" 4, which, in our view, is the most important and revealing publication for the current stage of development of Soviet studies of the modern history of the Romanian people.

The Great October Socialist Revolution had a huge impact on the rise of the Romanian revolutionary movement in 1918-1921 and its further development in the 20s and 40s. Naturally, Soviet historians have been very interested in this problem, which is connected with the revolutionary struggle of the Romanian workers during the October Revolution and in defense of its conquests. In the " History of Romania new and new-


1 See A. A. Shevyakov. Economic and military-political aggression of German imperialism in Romania (1936-1941). Chisinau. 1963; A. A. Yazkova. Romania on the eve of World War II. 1934-1939 Moscow, 1963; N. I. Lebedev, E. D. Karpeshchenko. History of the Romanian People's Republic. (Short essay), Moscow, 1964, et al.

2 "New and recent history of Romania". Collection of articles, Moscow, 1963.

3 V. N. Vinogradov, E. D. Karpeshchenko, N. I. Lebedev, and A. A. Yazkova. History of Romania of the new and modern times, Moscow, 1964.

4 Further references to the relevant pages of this publication are given in the review text.

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past Tense "(in the chapters" Romania and Transylvania in the First World War "by V. N. Vinogradov and" The Revolutionary Upsurge in Romania after the Great October Socialist Revolution (1918 - 1921) " by A. A. Yazkova) shows the connection between the events that took place in Romania and in Russia. The responses to the February Revolution of 1917, the series of May Day demonstrations in Romania, the creation of the Romanian Social-Democratic Action Committee 5 in Odessa in July 1917 , and the rise of the peasant movement - all these were just prerequisites for the mass development of the revolutionary struggle that unfolded after Great October.

During the First World War, joint revolutionary actions on the Romanian front, in Bessarabia and in the south of Russia, in the Odessa - Nikolaev area, laid the foundations of Russian-Romanian revolutionary friendship .6 In this regard, it is gratifying to see works covering the activities of representatives of the Russian revolutionary movement, who actively contributed to the subsequent speeches of Romanian revolutionaries. M. A. Kalinenok gave biographical information about 56 participants of the 1917 revolutionary movement7 . Here are biographies of such famous revolutionaries as G. I. Kotovsky, N. N. Krivoruchko, A. S. Krusser, D. G. Morozov, S. G. Roshal, I. P. Uborevich, A.V. Khristev, V. G. Yudovsky, I. E. Yakir, and other party and military workers. Many of these cohorts helped young Romanian communist organizations established in both Russian and Romanian territories that were part of the Romanian Front zone.

It should be noted that the account of the relevant events of late 1917 and early 1918 in the "History of Modern and Modern Romania" could be supplemented by fresh materials that expand our understanding of the revolutionary work of the Romanian left Social Democrats, 8 who rallied their own revolutionary forces in Russia, using more favorable conditions here than at home at home 9 .

Recently, the range of Soviet studies and publications devoted to the problems of the internationalist movement in 1917-1920 has significantly expanded.,


5 More precisely, in the second half of June 1917. The committee was organized by prominent figures of the Romanian Social Democratic and later Communist movement Mihai Gheorghe Bujor and Alexandru Nicolau. P. S. Zaslavsky, secretary of the Bolshevik organization of Odessa, was of great help to the committee during its organization, and was elected by the Rumanian comrades to join their action committee.

6 For a detailed bibliographic review of the literature devoted to the revolutionary events of 1917, which deals with the history of Russian-Romanian revolutionary relations of this period, see the collective work of S. Ya. Aftenyuk, A. S. Esaulenko, M. B. Itkis, N. D. Roitman, D. E. Shemyakov "The Revolutionary Movement in 1917 and the establishment of Soviet Power in Romania". Moldova". Chisinau. 1964. Introduction, pp. 3-28; see also E. I. Spivakovsky. New materials on V. I. Lenin's relations with the Romanian labor movement and propaganda of Leninism in Romania. "History of the USSR", 1966, N 2; R. Z. Yunitskaya. Some facts from the biography of V. I. Lenin. Voprosy istorii CPSU, 1964, No. 11.

7 See M. A. Kalinenok. Active participants and leaders of the revolutionary movement on the Romanian front and in Bessarabia in 1917. "Scientific session of the faculty and staff of the University dedicated to the results of scientific activity in 1964". Abstracts of reports. Chisinau. 1965.

8 See, for example, A. N. Glugovsky. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Rise of the Revolutionary Movement in Romania in 1917-1918 "The world-historical significance of the Great October Socialist Revolution", Moscow, 1957; V. Liveanu. 1918. Din istoria luptelor revolutionare din Romtnia. Bucuresti. 1960 V. M. Rozhko. A battle-hardened friendship. Romanian internationalists in the Great October Socialist Revolution and the Civil War in the USSR (1917-1920). Chisinau. 1965 (bibliography of the issue).

9 The history of the revolutionary collaboration of the Russian soldiers of the Romanian Front with the Romanian population located in the zone of this front, with the Romanian revolutionaries, has already been reflected in the Soviet historical literature. For new works on this subject, see: M. A. Kalinenok. Publications of the Bolshevik press and its influence on the development of the revolutionary movement on the Romanian Front and in Bessarabia. "Scientific Notes" of Chisinau State University, vol. LXXIV, 1964; V. M. Rozhko. Op. ed., pp. 10-52.

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including the activities of Romanian revolutionaries 10 . There are also a number of works containing materials about Romanian internationalists during the civil war in the USSR .11 The authors of the "History of Modern and Modern Romania" also paid some attention to this question , 12 especially in connection with their statement of the problem of direct links between the revolutionary organizations of Romania and Russia. It is known that in late 1917 - early 1918 contacts were established between Romanian communist organizations and groups operating in Romania and Russia ("History of Romania...", p. 156). A. A. Yazkova, covering the revolutionary struggle of the Romanian workers in 1918, the growth of the strike movement and the increase in the number of revolutionary groups in the occupied territory At the same time, it emphasizes the strengthening of their daily ties with Romanian revolutionary organizations in Russia. This once again confirms the idea repeatedly expressed in the Romanian historical literature that the activities of the Romanian communist groups in Soviet Russia were an integral part of the struggle waged by the Romanian proletariat .13 It should be noted that the "History of Modern and Contemporary Romania" examines the struggle of the Romanian left Social Democrats for the adoption of revolutionary program guidelines in more detail than in previous works. It is shown how at the end of 1918 the leadership of the left wing of the SDP and the leaders of the communist groups (A. Constantinescu, C. Ivanus, G. Vasilescu-Vasia and others) succeeded in renaming the party socialist, and in December 1918, on their initiative, a revolutionary program was drawn up [14], which put the struggle for the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat on the agenda. - The so-called Declaration of Principles (p. 165)15 .

The policy of the Romanian ruling circles was aimed at achieving completely different goals. Soviet historians rightly recall the desire of the rulers of bourgeois-landlord Romania to intervene against the Great October Socialist Revolution in order to secure political, economic and (military) support for international imperialism (p .158).16 The same goal was served by the intervention of the Romanian military in Soviet Hungary. In this connection, it should be noted that the military operations of our Red Army in May 1919 against bourgeois-landowner Romania were not only directed against the interventionists, but also provided direct assistance to Soviet Hungary. Red Army operations on the right bank of the Dniester forced the rulers of boyar Romania to transfer two divisions to Bessarabia.-


10 D. K. Shelestov. Soviet historical literature on the solidarity of the international proletariat with Soviet Russia in 1917-1920. "New and recent History", 1964, N 3; A. S. Esaulenko, V. M. Rozhko. On the participation of Romanian internationalists in the struggle for Soviet power in Russia. Voprosy archivovedeniya, 1963, No. 4.

11 O. G. Grishchenko. Астраханська комуні;стична група руминських і;нтернаці;оналі;сті;в в роки громадянської; ві;йни. "Участь і;ноземних і;нтернаці;оналі;сті;в в боротьби за владу Рад. Тези допові;ді;в наукової; конференці;ї; (13 і; 15 кві;т.)". Льві;в. 1964; В. М. Рожко. On the participation of Romanian internationalists in the struggle for Soviet power in Russia. Publishing documents. Voprosy archivovedeniya, 1963, No. 4; V. A. Kondratiev. Romanian internationalist I. O. Dicicu. "New and Recent History", 1961, N 3. Materials on the Romanian internationalists are also available in the works of Soviet historians devoted to the internationalist movement as a whole. For a list of these works, see: V. M. Rozhko. Op. ed., p. 5; see also: L. I. Yakovlev. International solidarity of workers of Foreign countries with the peoples of Russia, 1917-1922. Moscow, 1964.

12 In the History of Modern and Contemporary Romania, the Romanian internationalists I. Dicdicu, G. Stroicu, F. Nennich, M. Andrej, and M. Gheorghiu are mentioned (p. 168).

13 См. "Documente din istoria Partidului Comunist din Romtnia". Vol. I, (1917 - 1922). Ed. a II-а. Bucuresti. 1956 (more: Documente PCR), as well as the works of Romanian revolutionary figures and historians acad. P. Constantinescu-Yash, acad. M. Roller, V. Liveanu, K. Kushnir-Mihajlovic, M. Bujora and others.

14 According to the publication "Documents on the History of the Communist Party", this was a draft program (Vol. 1. (1917-1922), p. 94).

15 See Documente PCR. Vol. I, p. 94.

16 See also K. Slutskaya. The victory of the October Revolution and the establishment of Soviet power in Moldavia (March 1917-March 1918). Chisinau. 1962. The author cites the text of the appeal of the Executive Committee of the Social Democratic Party of Romania, which called for "fighting by all available means against the Romanian invaders alongside the Russian comrades" (p. 283).

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previously active against Soviet Hungary 17 . Only the situation in the south of Soviet Russia, which had sharply worsened in the second half of May 1919, prevented the liberation of Bessarabia from the troops of the Romanian invaders.

A special theme is the general strike of Romanian workers in 1920. Soviet historians use a lot of factual material to show the growth of the revolutionary movement in Romania in 1919-1920, which led to this general strike. Based on its experience, the Romanian working class realized that it was necessary to create a revolutionary workers ' Party ("History of Modern and Contemporary Romania", p. 174). The Communists carried out considerable work on the preparation of the Congress of the Socialist Party, at which in May 1921 it was decided to create the Communist Party and join the Third International. This was the victory of Leninism over opportunism and reformism in the Romanian workers ' movement .

Much space in these books is devoted to the study of the agrarian question and the revolutionary movement of the Romanian peasantry in the post-October period19 . Let us mention the work of P. P. Vandel, who elucidates the causes and nature of the agrarian reform of 1921-20 . He believes that the main reason for the defeat of the peasant and proletarian struggle of 1917-1921 in Romania was the lack of clarity of the direction and character of the movement for the proletariat itself, due to the lack of a militant vanguard in the person of the revolutionary Marxist party. True, the Rumanian workers and peasants forced the ruling classes to make temporary concessions: to introduce a law on the eight-hour working day, universal suffrage, and to carry out agrarian reform (pp. 1-51-152). It should be added that in the course of this struggle, the foundations were laid for the union of the working class and the peasantry, which later became a necessary condition for the successful development of the socialist revolution in the country.

Relatively few works are devoted to the revolutionary movement during the years of relative and partial stabilization of capitalism (1924-1928) and the world economic crisis (1929-1933). This issue was most fully covered in the History of Modern and Contemporary Romania (Chapters VIII and IX, by A. A. Yazkova), which shows that although in 1924 the Communist Party was banned and went underground, the workers 'and peasants' movement continued to develop. The flames of uprisings in occupied Bessarabia were particularly bright .21 The largest action of the working people, which left its mark on the general level of class struggle in Romania in the mid-1920s, was the Tatarbunar uprising of the Bessarabian peasants, which took place under socialist slogans. The article by Yu. D. Roshkovan tells about a little-explored issue - the international campaign of solidarity with Tatarbunar people, 22 about the responses in various countries of the world to the events that took place (demonstrations and rallies of solidarity, a wide flow of letters in the progressive press)23 . The Communist Party demonstrated a Marxist attitude as a class struggle


17 N. D. Roitman. From the history of the struggle for the liberation of Bessarabia (April-May 1919). "Scientific session of the faculty and staff of the University dedicated to the results of scientific activity in 1964". Abstracts of reports. Chisinau. 1965, p. 58.

18 Recall that the First Congress of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation addressed the working class of Soviet Russia with words of admiration for its heroic feat (resolution "To the Russian Proletariat") ("Documente PCR". Vol. I, p. 306); see also E. Spivakovsky. On the occasion of the 45th anniversary of the Romanian Communist Party. Novoe vremya, 1966, No. 19.

19 See also N. Frolov. Agrarian relations in bourgeois-landlord Romania. "Proceedings" of the Chisinau Agricultural Institute, vol. XVII, 1958.

20 See P. P. Vandel. On the History of the peasant Revolutionary Movement in Romania in 1917-1921 "Scientific Notes" of the V. I. Lenin Moscow State Pedagogical Institute. Department of Modern and Contemporary History. N 205. 1964.

21 The Bessarabian Communist Organization was part of the RCP(b) until 1922, and then, by the decision of the Comintern, merged with the Communist Party of the Russian Federation ("Leaflets of the Communist Underground of Bessarabia 1918-1940". Collection of documents. Chisinau. 1960, p. 4).

22 Yu. D. Roshkovan. Chisinau process of Tatarbunar peasants and the international solidarity movement. "History of the USSR", 1965, N 1.

23 See also another article by the same author: "International Proletarian and Democratic Movement in Defense of the Tatarbunar rebels "(Kommunist Moldavii, 1964, No. 10). Forced to go underground, the Communist Party fully supported the struggle of the Bessarabian peasants for their national and social liberation.-

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of the Bessarabian peasants, as well as their national demands, by approving the activities of members of its Bessarabian organization to assist the Tatarbunar rebels .24 In a manifesto issued on the occasion of peasant protests in Bessarabia, the Communist Party called on peasants of all nationalities to " form a fraternal united front, to unite against the Romanian oligarchy... The Communist Party of Romania, "it went on," will assist you in your struggle to achieve national liberation. " 25 The latter circumstance is important to note because in the Romanian bourgeois-nationalist works, the problem of the Moldovan workers ' gaining national independence was distorted.

As for the activities of the Communist Party in the late 1920s and 30s, one of its characteristic features was the struggle against the anti-Soviet policies of the Romanian ruling classes, for the friendship of the Romanian and Soviet peoples. At the same time, the tactics of the Communist Party were formed and strengthened as a result of the struggle against various opportunist and sectarian trends. The Third, Fourth, and Fifth Congresses of the Communist Party, after analyzing the prospects of the revolution in Romania and defining the strategic and tactical line of the party, improved and normalized its work. Their decisions formed the basis for the party's future activities. Meanwhile, the works available to us present the events of that time in a rather declarative form. Therefore, it would be advisable to describe in more detail the materials of the decisions of the Third, Fourth and Fifth Congresses. It should also be recalled that the publication of the materials of the Fifth Congress of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, which was published in Russian as early as 1932.26 , has long been a bibliographic rarity.

After the Fifth Congress of the Communist Party, a strike struggle and a broad anti-war movement developed under the leadership of the party. Active members of the anti-war committee in Bucharest were Professors P. Constantinescu-Yas, K. Parhon, I. Iordan, writer N. D. Kocha, and others. The "Front of Farmers" headed by P. Groza worked in close contact with the Communist Party of Romania ("History of Modern and Contemporary Romania", p.207). In the "History of Romania of Modern and Contemporary Times" (based on the materials of the archive of the Central Committee of the RCP), a high assessment of the speech of the railway workers of Grivitsa in 1933, which was given at the trial by G. Gheorghiu-Dej: "A page was written in the case of workers' solidarity on February 15. The workers demonstrated their determination to oppose the state of siege... Despite the terror, the working class responded with dignity to the attack launched against it by the Government " (p. 211). The book correctly notes that "the revolutionary events of 1933 were the most important event in the history of the revolutionary movement in Romania in the early 1930s" (ibid.). The working people of a number of countries, including the working class of the U.S.S.R., expressed their solidarity with the heroic struggle of the Romanian workers. 27

One of the most difficult periods in the history of the Romanian revolutionary movement is the pre - war years. This topic is quite widely developed in Romanian historiography. The research of Soviet historians on this topic is summarized in the "History of Romania of Modern and Contemporary Times". It shows the struggle of the Romanian people against the offensive of fascism, for the creation of the Popular Front in 1934-1937. Drawing a complex picture of the class struggles of 1936-1937, A. A. Yazkova seems to us to be correct in thinking that the creation of the Goga-Kuza government sharply sharpened social and economic contradictions and became a prologue to the establishment of a dictatorial regime (p .233).28


freedom from boyar oppression (Yu. D. Roshkovan. International Proletarian and Democratic Movement in defense of the revolutionary actions of the peasants of Bessarabia (1924-1925). Abstract of the dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Historical Sciences. Moscow State Pedagogical Institute named after V. I. Lenin. 1964, pp. 21-22).

24 "History of the Moldavian SSR", Vol. II. Kishinev. 1955, p. 243.

25 "Documente PCR". Vol. II (1923 - 1928). Bucuresti. 1956, pp. 200 - 201.

26 "V Congress of the Communist Party of Romania", Moscow, 1932, 174 p.

27 I. Operea, N. Popescu, C. Almasan. Eroicele lupte ale ceferestilor si petrolistilor din ianuarie - februarie 1933. "Lupta de clasa", 1966, N 2, p. 15.

28 A. A. Yazkova. Edict. op.; her own. Establishment of diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Romania in 1934. Novaya I Sovremennaya Istoriya, 1964, No. 6.O. Goga's pro-fascist and nationalist views are well known. In this regard, the positive assessment of his social views, which is given in the preface of I. D. Badan to the publication of the collected poems of O. Goga (O. Goga. Poezii. Bucuresti. 1964), as well as an abstract of the Romanian

page 173

Much attention is paid in the latest literature to the heroic struggle of the Romanian people against the establishment of fascism on the eve of World War II, the political events of 1938-1941. A. A. Yazkova believes that the final transition of Romania to the position of the fascist bloc occurred in May 1940 (p. 249)29 . However, this thesis needs to be clarified.

The revolutionary struggle against fascism and war defined the entire history of the Romanian people for a number of years. It is in this aspect that Soviet historians study the activities of the Communist Party, which opposed the enslavement of Romania by Hitler's Germany. Now, after the publication of a number of new materials on the 20th anniversary of the liberation of Romania from fascism, we can say that our specialists have done a lot to show the complexity and inconsistency of that historical period. A useful monograph by A. A. Shevyakov is devoted to the Romanian-German relations, to elucidating all the reasons for the policy of capitulation of the ruling classes and bourgeois political parties of Romania to Hitler, turning it into a satellite of the fascist Reich .30 However, it is still necessary to summarize a variety of materials covering both the circumstances and goals of Romania's active participation in the Hitlerite coalition, and the revolutionary struggle waged by the people under the leadership of the Romanian communists against the policy of reaction.

The success of our historiography in studying the Romanian revolutionary movement of the post-October period (1918-1941) and its internationalist ties with the working people of the USSR is obvious. However, Soviet historians still have a lot of work to do to study the diverse forms of the Romanian people's revolutionary struggle, which is closely connected with the history of the world's first socialist state, the USSR.

Our historiography is characterized by a wide and critical use of various sources, striving for a serious scientific justification of each put forward position. The validity of scientific conclusions was and remains the main criterion for evaluating certain Soviet research works. According to the agreement concluded between the Academies of Sciences of the USSR and the SRR, scientific cooperation and trips of historical researchers are carried out between both countries. A wider mutual familiarization with Romanian and Soviet archival materials is the key to expanding and deepening research based on a deep study of historical facts and documents, in the interests of further development of Marxist-Leninist historical science.


publishers: "The best in the poetic work of Octavian Goga is a product of the suffering and struggle of the Romanian people for national liberation and social justice (!), an expression of collective sensitivity, as well as the aspirations and aspirations of the poet himself" ("Romanian books. Quarterly Bulletin, 1964, No. 1, p. 23). From other points of view, he assessed the activities of O. Gogi Sh. Stati: "The reactionary national - chauvinist political activity of Octavian Goga in the last period of his life casts a shadow on him that is difficult to erase" ("Romania". Bucharest, 1966, N 4, p. 27).

29 Cf. in a previously published monograph: "The final transition of Romania to the camp of the fascist bloc countries took place in the spring and summer of 1940" (A. A. Yazkova. Romania on the eve of World War II, p. 269).

30 A. A. Shevyakov. Op. cit.; see the review by V. L. Israelyan (Voprosy Istorii, 1964, No. 7), as well as the review by A. A. Yazkova (Novaya I Sovremennaya Istoriya, 1964, No. 1). At the same time, a book written by a team of authors, K. was published in Bucharest. Nicolae, S. Asandei, N. Condurachi, A. Petri and R. Tiulescu - the book "German Militarism and Romania" (C. Nicolae, S. Asandei, N. Condurachi, A. Pertri, R. Tiulescu. Militarismul german si Rominia. Pagini de istorie. Bucuresti. "Ed. politica". 1963). This work was simultaneously published in German under the title "Der deutsche Militarismus und Rumanien". The advantage of the Romanian edition is a complete consideration of the topic. The chronological framework of the review (the authors conclude it with the events of 1944) allows us to show not only the essence and results of the anti-people policy of German and Romanian fascism, but also the revolutionary struggle of the Romanian people against this policy, as well as the collapse of this policy. In 1964, the works of Soviet scientists were published, as well as the works of Romanian historians that supplement the materials on this problem (see N. I. Lebedev, E. D. Karpeshchenko. History of the Romanian People's Republic, ch. I, as well as the collection "23 August 1944" (Culegere de articole. Bucureti, 1964) and an article by N. N. Constantinescu and N. Copoi in the collection "Romania in the Second World War". Bucharest, 1964).


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