Libmonster ID: EE-624
Author(s) of the publication: M. A. Sapronova

Training course program

The program was developed at the Department of Oriental Studies of MGIMO University Russian Foreign Ministry

The program was compiled by M. A. Sapronova, Ph. D., with the participation of V. Ya. Belokrenitsky, Ph. D., S. B. Druzhilovsky, Ph. D., L. M. Efimova, Ph. D., I. D. Zvyagelskaya, and N. V. Stepanova. Reviewers: Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences A. D. Voskresensky, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences V. E. Dontsov.

ORGANIZATIONAL AND METHODOLOGICAL SECTION

International relations at the turn of the XX-XXI centuries are characterized by a clash of various ideological and socio-political trends and trends that are ambiguous and contradictory. Globalization as the main trend of the world development of the new millennium is opposed by the trend associated with the search for national identity, alternative ways of development, and different models of interaction with the outside world.

The most important trend in the life of the Eastern countries is the growing influence of traditional historical factors on their social development and foreign policy. In a large group of Afro-Asian States, this type of factor is Islam, whose influence on modern politics has acquired an international scale.

In modern international relations, Islam is represented by such subjects of political action as Muslim states, international intergovernmental organizations of Muslim states, Islamic international non-governmental organizations and foundations. Islamic organizations and movements that have emerged in a Muslim country but spread their activities far beyond its borders, as well as Islamic organizations and movements whose activities are limited to one country, but have a wide international resonance, become a factor in international life.

The modern period of "Islamization" is characterized by attempts to put into practice an "Islamic project" that includes certain forms of interaction between religion and politics, religion and the state ("Islamic state"), the revival of Sharia law as a state law, Muslim norms regulating economic life ("Islamic economy"), etc.

Recognizing the integrity of Islam as a civilization and socio-cultural system, it is necessary to take into account the multiplicity of levels and roles of Islam, resulting from its own complex structure and the variety of functions it performs, and the use of this religion by various political organizations and movements to achieve political and ideological goals and strengthen its position on the world stage.

At the same time, the peculiarities of the socio-economic, historical and cultural development of the countries where Islam is traditionally spread, the nature of the correlation of internal political forces, and other factors have led to a different manifestation of " Islam-

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Russian factor" in modern international relations at the global, regional and country levels. Among the modern Islamic ideological and political trends, there are a wide variety of trends-from liberal to extremist. Without a serious theoretical study and understanding of the specifics of these processes and trends, it is impossible to get an adequate idea of both the features of the political development of countries and regions of the traditional spread of Islam, and of modern international relations in general. In addition, an understanding of these specifics creates conditions for establishing closer and more fruitful relations with Muslim states, taking into account the changed international relations and the new alignment of political forces both within countries and in the international arena. This is the relevance of the problems proposed for study.

The aim of the course is to deepen professional understanding of the role played by Islam as a world religion and civilization in modern international relations, taking into account the regional peculiarities of the manifestation of the Islamic tradition in the politics of the states of its traditional distribution, as well as in the "new" CIS countries and Muslim regions of Russia.

The aim of the course is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of the Islamic world in world politics, as well as to show the problem of internal differentiation of Islam in its historical and religious studies, political and legal and socio-economic aspects; to give an in-depth analysis of attempts to build an "Islamic economy" and a "new Islamic order" at the international level, political and socio-economiceconomic essence of "Islamic terrorism" and its theoretical basis; to show various trends in the development of the Islamic movement and the specifics of secularization processes in the Muslim world.

As a result of studying this course, undergraduates will have the opportunity to compare the degree of influence of Islam on the foreign and domestic policies of individual Muslim countries and different regions and the forms of its interaction with other socio-economic and political factors; to analyze the methods of using the principles of Islam by various socio-political groups both within the Muslim world

This course is new both in the subject of study and in the scope and subject of the lectures offered.

COURSE CONTENT

Lecture sessions

Topic 1. The place of Islam in world politics

The Islamic "Renaissance" of the last quarter of the 20th century and its impact on the alignment of political forces in the modern world. Reasons for the activation of political Islam in Muslim countries and Muslim minorities and diasporas in non-Muslim countries, the main manifestations of this activity in international relations.

Various trends in political Islam. Fundamentalism and modernism in modern Islam. The diversity of manifestations of the "Islamic factor" in international politics at the global, regional and country levels. Political and socio-economic essence of the "Islamic model" of development. Attempts to put the "Islamic project"into practice.

Islamic radicalism as an opponent of the Western liberal-globalist project in the modern world. "Islamic terrorism", its sources, theoretical basis, political orientation. Combating international terrorism under the flag of Islam: challenges, problems, and prospects.

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"Dialogue of Civilizations" as an alternative to escalating tensions between Western and Islamic civilizations.

Topic 2. Countries of Islam at the turn of the century (political, economic and cultural aspects)

Estimation of the total number of Muslims in the world: an eight-fold increase in the XX century, prospects for further increase in the number and proportion of professing Islam. Reasons for demographic growth in the Islamic area and implications for world politics and culture.

Muslim states in the world, number and general characteristics. Countries with an absolute predominance of Muslims. States with significant Muslim populations. Multi-confessional states with a significant Muslim minority.

The main cultural and historical sub - regions of the Muslim world are Arab, Iranian, Turkic, Indian, Pacific, and African. Growth of the economic potential of the Muslim area states. The factor of oil and other energy resources in increasing the rate of economic growth.

Narrowness of the resource base. Lagging behind in the pace of human capital development. There is a high level of illiteracy, especially among the female population. The peculiarity of the educational and cultural system, the emphasis on the role of religion, education in the spirit of fatalism.

Innovative potential of Islamic culture. Authoritarianism of political culture and political systems. Features of the democratization process.

Topic 3. Organization of the Islamic Conference: history and modernity

The problem of unity of the Muslim world in the Islamic doctrine. Historical forms and methods of Muslim unification in the Middle Ages and Modern Times. Difficulties in preserving the unity of the Muslim world. Caliph and caliphate. Pan-Islamism and its content at different stages of evolution.

Background and causes of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Organizational structure of DECs. Forms and methods of making and executing decisions.

The main directions of political and economic activity of DECs at the present stage. Difficulties and prospects for the development of this organization. The position of the OIC on the main problems of modern international relations.

Topic 4. Islam and features of modernization in the Muslim world (on the example of Egypt)

The uniqueness of the natural, geographical and geopolitical position of Egypt, its connection with the European-Mediterranean culture as a prerequisite for Egypt's early entry into the path of modernization.

Napoleon Bonaparte's military expedition to Egypt in 1798 was the beginning of the process of "awakening", a means of approaching the industrial West. The reference point is the European development model.

Transformation of the material, social and spiritual foundations of Egyptian society. The unevenness of this process is the basis for ambiguity of approaches and assessments of its consequences from the standpoint of Islam.

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Muslim "Orthodox" ("traditionalists") and "reformers". Egypt is an arena for the emergence and development of Islamic ideological concepts and organizations, including political Islamic parties. The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood Association (1928) is the founder of almost all Islamist organizations in the countries of Islam.

The sharp rise of Islamism in Egypt in the 70s - 90s of the XX century in the context of accelerating the pace of modernization of the country. The flexible policy of the Egyptian leadership in relation to various Islamist groups: from the harsh suppression of extremists to cooperation with the moderate Islamic opposition. This course is particularly important in the context of increasing globalization processes.

Relying on its traditional cultural values, among which Islam occupies a leading place, is a means of countering the challenges of modernity and preserving the identity historically inherent in the Arab Muslim society of Egypt.

Topic 5. The influence of Islam on the formation of the foreign policy course of the Arab states

General principles of the Islamic theory of international relations and main trends in the approaches of Muslim states to the issues of reforming modern international relations.

The influence of Islam on the constitutional establishment of the foundations of foreign policy in Arab countries. The role of the head of state in shaping the foreign policy course.

Arab-Islamic component of the foreign policy of the "Arab six" states. Concepts and interpretation of "Islamic" and "Arab" solidarity. Implementation of the Arab-Islamic component in the foreign policy of Arab states (bilateral relations with Islamic and non-Muslim states and within the framework of regional organizations of the Arab League, GCC, SAM, etc.) and the main directions of foreign policy of these states in the 1990s.

Activities and tasks of non-governmental pan-Islamic organizations (World Islamic Congress, World Islamic League, World League of Islamic Youth, etc.) Strengthening the role of the Islamic Development Bank (IDB).

The Islamic factor in Russian-Arab relations.

Topic 6. Problems of democracy in the Arab-Muslim world

The 70s and 90s of the XX century were marked by serious efforts made by Arab countries in the field of economic and state-political modernization. Most Arab countries are successfully implementing structural recovery programs for their national economies, which simultaneously generate many political, economic and social problems. One of the ways to resolve these contradictions in society, to relieve the emerging tension, the ruling regimes see in the assumption of political liberalization, "metered" democratization, the formation of"democracy without democrats".

The Arab countries have accumulated considerable experience in transforming the political space, which is reflected in the constitutional process, party pluralism, freedom of the press, and many other aspects of political life. However, all these attributes of democracy have a purely formal, facade character, covering up the essentially authoritarian government. In virtually none of the Arab countries has the process of reforming the traditional society and the regime of government failed.

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led to any significant changes. Today, the problem of democratization, which is largely specifically perceived by non-Western Arab society, its politicians and ideologues, occupies a priority place in their vision of the future development of the Arab world in the XXI century.

Topic 7. Islamic radicalism and the problem of terrorism in the modern world

Definition of Islamic radicalism as a conservative-Puritanical ideology. Correlation with other terms - fundamentalism, Islamism, political Islam, extremism, etc.

Modern Radical Islam: Origins, origin and transformation into a major factor in world politics in the last third of the 20th century Differences from pan-Islamism of the previous era. Comparison with the ideology of Islamic nationalism, socialism, liberalism, conservatism, etc.

The successes and failures of radical Islam in the 1970s and 1980s. The role of Cold War-era geopolitics. A new stage in the evolution of radicalism after its end. The transition of Islamic radicalism to the position of the main opponent of the Western liberal-globalist project.

Formation of an international network of subversive terrorist activities. Modern terrorism, complex structure of the concept, international, regional, country and local levels. The link between terrorism and Islamic radicalism. Defining the line between radical Islam and Islamist terrorism.

Topic 8. Islamic extremism in the Middle East settlement process

The Middle East Arab-Israeli conflict is the oldest of all the world's recent regional conflicts. Its core - the problem of the Arab people of Palestine, deprived of their land and statehood-is the embodiment of the entire complex of Arab-Israeli contradictions, the intertwining interests of the pan - Arab, Middle East-regional and international forces involved in this conflict.

One of the most important aspects of the Middle East conflict is terrorism as a form of Islamic and Jewish extremism in the relations between the warring parties.

The unresolved Arab-Israeli conflict is the most important factor in the rise of Islamism in the political life of the Arab East in the last decades of the 20th century.

The emergence of Islamic fundamentalist organizations with an anti-Israel orientation. Their program settings, ideology, and methods of achieving goals.

A qualitatively new stage in the expansion of extremism within the framework of the second intifada.

Topic 9: Islamic extremism in Algeria and the Mediterranean security challenge

Characteristic features of the internal political development of North African countries after achieving political independence, features of the influence of the norms and values of Islam on their state structure. The reasons that led to the emergence and development of political Islam movements in the 1990s in this region.

The concept of "Islamic fundamentalism". Characteristic features of modern Islamic extremism in North African countries as a complex historical and cultural phenomenon.

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socio-political phenomenon. Features of interaction of ruling regimes in North African countries with Islamic movements at the present stage.

Islamic extremism in Algeria. Causes of the domestic political crisis and characteristics of its main stages. Civil war, the birth of the terrorist movement. The essence and features of the activities of religious extremist organizations in Algeria (the Armed Islamic Group, the Islamic Salvation Army, etc.). Attempts to create a national Islamic state.

The confrontation in Algeria between French and American interests. New foreign policy of the President of Algeria A. Bouteflika.

Topic 10. The Islamic factor in the Central Asian States

Islamic revival in the Central Asian states as an essential element of the search for national identity. The organic connection of Islam with politics and statehood. The concept of "political Islam". Problems of re-traditionalization in the context of a structural socio-economic crisis.

Different degrees of Islamization of Central Asian societies - nomads and sedentary population. The use of Islam by various political forces in the struggle for the redistribution of power, for access to resources, etc.

A Tajik example of using Islam for political purposes is the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan, its role in the civil war and in the post-conflict period.

Islamic revival in Uzbekistan and its main characteristics. The situation in the Ferghana Valley and the danger of destabilization of the situation. IMU activities and military breakthroughs in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in 1999 and 2000

Reasons for the radicalization of political Islam in the region (protest sentiments, external assistance). Hizb-ut-Tahrir as an example of a radical Islamist group. The Islamic factor and regional security problems.

Topic 11. The role of Islam in the development of the Middle Eastern region

The growing influence of Islam on the development of the socio-political situation in Iran, Turkey, and Afghanistan in the 1980s and 1990s.

The Islamic Revolution in Iran, its political doctrine, leaders and driving forces of the revolution. The main directions of Islamization of the state and society in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. Results of the implementation of the Islamic development model in Iran.

Laicist principles in the Republic of Turkey. Reasons for the activation of political Islam in Turkey after the military coup of 1980. Turkish Islamists in power in 1996-1997. The main directions of the domestic and foreign policy of N. Erbakan. Results of the board of N. Erbakan. Activities of Islamists among the Turkish diaspora in Western Europe.

The role of Islam in the socio-political life of Afghan society. The "split" society in Afghanistan and the role of Islam as a consolidating factor. Correlation of Islam and traditionalism. The use of Islam by various political forces in Afghanistan in the struggle for power.

Topic 12. Islam in the development models of Pakistan and Bangladesh

Formation of Pakistan in 1947, as a country for the Muslims of India. The role of Islam as the basis of Pakistani nationalism. Disruptions in the way of building a Muslim society, the strengthening of ethno-national movements and the separation of Bangladesh.

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Islam in the political and constitutional space of Pakistan. Attempts by the authorities to apply the concepts of Islamic socialism and Islamic economy. Using Islam to legitimize the 1977 military coup Stages and features of the process of Islamization imposed "from above".

Position and political role of the Muslim theologian class. The multiplicity of trends, sects and orders in Pakistani Islam. Main religious and political trends and parties. The role of Islam in politics, ideology, and organization of economic life in modern Pakistan.

The lesser socio-political significance of Islam in Bangladesh. The denial of its independent role at first, and its further approval as an official religion. Activity of religious and political parties. Islam as a symbol of Bangladeshi identity.

Topic 13. The Islamic factor in the Russian Federation at the present stage

Features of the ethno-confessional composition of Russia and the main reasons for the formation of the Islamic factor as a socio-political phenomenon. The close connection of Islam with ethnicity.

The role of socio-economic factors, their impact on the Islamic renaissance and its diverse nature. The concepts of "official" and "unofficial" or "popular" Islam and the reasons for activating its role.

The enclave character of the Islamic factor and its dependence on local conditions. The use of Islam by various political forces, its politicization and radicalization.

The impact of external assistance and support. The main examples of the action of the Islamic factor (Chechnya, Dagestan, Tatarstan).

Wahhabism and fundamentalism in the context of the regional situation.

SEMINAR SESSIONS

Topic 1. The role of Islam in modern international relations: positive and negative aspects

1. Sub-regions of the Muslim area and various approaches to their identification.

2. Reasons for increasing the economic potential of Muslim countries at the present stage.

3. Main characteristics of the "Islamic model" of development.

4. Features of traditional Muslim culture. Prospects for its adaptation to modernity.

5. Pan-Islamism and its content. The problem of Muslim unity in Islamic doctrine.

6. The emergence of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the main directions of its activities.

7. Reasons for the politicization of Islam in the last quarter of the 20th century. The confrontation between fundamentalists and modernists in modern Islam.

8. The reasons for the emergence of modern Islamic radicalism, its differences from pan-Islamism and other ideological trends painted in Islamic tones.

9. Activities and orientation of the main radical Islamic groups. The war against international terrorism under the flag of Islam.

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Topic 2. The role of Islam in the domestic and foreign policy of individual countries and regions

1. Islam and problems of democratization in modern Egypt.

2. The Arab-Islamic component of the foreign policy of Arab countries.

3. Islam in the political life of Iran after the victory of the Islamic Revolution and at the present time.

4. Islam in Turkey and Afghanistan.

5. Islamic extremism in the Middle East settlement process.

6. Features of political Islam in North Africa.

7. Reasons for the revival of Islam in Central Asia, its politicization and radicalization.

8. "Unofficial Islam" and features of its political manifestation in the Russian Federation.

9. Activities of religious and political parties and organizations in Pakistan and Bangladesh.

THEMATIC LITERATURE TO PREPARE FOR THE TEST

Go to topic 1:

1. Arab East: Islam and Reforms, Moscow, 2000.

2. Efimova L. M. Sovremennyy islam i politika na zarubezhnom Vostoke [Modern Islam and Politics in the Foreign East]. Moscow, 1986.

3. Islam i politika [Islam and Politics], Moscow, 2001.

4. Islam and social structures of the countries of the Near and Middle East, Moscow, 1990.

5. Krasikov A. A. Religious factor in European Politics, Moscow, 2000.

6. Muslim countries near the borders of the CIS, Moscow, 2001.

7. Polyakov K. I. Arab countries and Islam in Russia, Moscow, 2001.

8. Russia and the Muslim World, Moscow, 2000.

9. North Africa: Islam and Society, Moscow, 1999.

10. Khatami M. Islam, dialog and civil society. Moscow, 2001.

Back to topic 2:

Required form

1. Islam and politics. Ed. Belokrenitskogo V. Ya., Egorina A. Z., Moscow, IV RAS, 2001.

2. Islam and problems of intercivilizational interaction. Ed. Smilyanskoi I. M. M., Institute of Islamic Civilization, 1992.

3. Islam. Problems of ideology, law, politics, and economics. Ed. Ionova A. I. M., 1985.

4. Islam. Encyclopedic dictionary, Moscow, 1991.

5. The "Islamic factor" in international relations in Asia. Ed. Polonskoy L. R. M., 1987.

6. Landa R. G. Islam v istorii Rossii [Islam in the History of Russia], Moscow, 1995.

7. Malashenko A.M. Islamskoe vozrozhdenie v sovremennoi Rossii [Islamic Revival in Modern Russia]. Moscow: Moscow Carnegie Center, 1998.

8. Malashenko A.M. Islamic Landmarks of the North Caucasus, Moscow: Carnegie Moscow Center, 2001.

9. Miloslavskiy G. V. Integratsionnye protsessy v moslemskom mire [Integration processes in the Muslim world]. Moscow, 1991.

10. Muslim countries near the borders of the CIS. Ed. Belokrenitskogo V. Ya., Egorina A. Z. Moscow: IV RAS, 2001.

11. Saidbaev T. S. Islam i obshchestvo [Islam and Society], Moscow, 1984.

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Additional information

1. Binder L. Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.

2. Eickelman D.E., Piscatori J. Muslim Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

3. Esposito J.L. Islam and Politics. N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1987.

4. Lawrence B.B. Shattering the Myth. Islam Beyond Violence. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998.

Back to topic 3:

Required form

1. Efimova L. M. Integration on the basis of religion: The Organization of the "Islamic Conference" / East-West: Regional subsystems and regional problems of international relations. Moscow, 2002.

2. Efimova L. M. Sovremennyy islam i politika na Zarubezhnom Vostoke [Modern Islam and Politics in the Foreign East]. Moscow, 1986.

3. ITAR-TASS compass. N 48. 23.11.2000.

Additional information

1. Islam i islamizm [Islam and Islamism], Moscow, 1999.

2. Islam i politika [Islam and Politics], Moscow, 2001.

3. Miloslavskaya T. P., Miloslavsky G. V. Kontseptsiya "islamskogo edinstva" i integratsionnye protsessy v moslemskom mire [The concept of "Islamic Unity" and integration processes in the Muslim world].

4. Miloslavskaya T. P., Miloslavsky G. V. Nekotorye voprosy teorii i praktiki finansovoi-ekonomicheskoi deyatel'nosti DEC [Some issues of the theory and practice of financial and economic activities of DECs]. Islam: problemy ideologii, prava, politiki i ekonomiki, Moscow, 1985.

5. Najib E. E. To the question of the activities of the international Muslim organizations // Islam and its role in the modern ideological and political struggle of the developing countries of Asia and Africa. Materials of the coordination meeting. Tashkent, March 1980. Moscow-Tashkent, 1980.

6. Syukiyainen L. R. Shariat i moslemsko-pravovaya kul'tura [Sharia and Muslim-legal culture], Moscow, 1997.

Back to topic 4:

1. Abramova I. O. Istoricheskie osobennosti i sovremennye prostransiia protsessa urbanizatsii v ARE [Historical features and modern contradictions of the urbanisation process in Egypt].

2. Arab World: three decades of independent development, Moscow, 1990.

3. Babkin S. E. Dvizheniya politicheskogo islama v Severnoi Afrika [Political Islam Movements in North Africa], Moscow, 2000.

4. Belyaev I. P., Primakov E. M. Egypt: the time of President Nasser, Moscow, 1974.

5. Borisov A. B. The role of Islam in the internal and foreign policy of Egypt in the XX century. Moscow, 1991.

6. Borisov A. B. Political evolution of Egypt: past, present and future / / Middle East and Modernity, Moscow, 1999. N 8.

7. Vasiliev A.M. Egypt and the Egyptians, Moscow, 1986.

8. Knyazev A. G. Egypt after Nasser (1970-1981). Moscow, 1986.

9. Kuprin A. I. Razvitie politicheskoi i partiynoi sistemy pri prezidente Hosni Mubarak [Development of the political and party system under President Hosni Mubarak]. Issue 4. Moscow: IV RAS, 2000.

10. Levin Z. I. Obshchestvennaya mysl ' na Vostoke [Public Thought in the East], Moscow, 1999.

11. Stepanova N. V. Egypt: the results of two centuries of modernization // Globalization and the search for national identity in the countries of the East. Moscow: MGIMO, 1999.

12. Umerov M. Sh. A quarter of a century of "democratization from above". Autumn parliamentary elections of 2000 in Egypt / / Middle East and Modernity, Moscow, 2001, No. 11.

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Back to topic 5:

Required form

1. Aleksandrov I. A. Monarchies of the Persian Gulf: Stage of modernization, Moscow, 2000.

2. Islam i sovremennye mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya [Islam and Modern International Relations], Moscow: Diplomatic Academy of the Russian Foreign Ministry, 2001.

3. International relations in the Middle East and Russia's policy at the Turn of the XXI century, Moscow, 2000.

4. Sapronova M. A. Arab East: power and Constitution. Moscow, 2001.

Additional information

1. Kozyrin A. N. Jamahiriyskaya politicheskaya kontseptsiya i gosudarstvennogo mekhanizm Libii [The Jamahiri political Concept and the State Mechanism of Libya]. Moscow, MGIMO, 1992.

2. Pavlov V. V. Islamic banks in the modern world of the 80-90th years. Moscow, 2000.

3. Khachim F. I. Constitutional Law of the Middle East countries (Iran, Egypt, Israel, UAE, Iraq). Moscow, 2001.

Back to topic 6:

1. Authoritarianism and Democracy in developing countries, Moscow, 1996.

2. Arab East: Islam and Reforms, Moscow, 2000.

3. Babkin S. E. Dvizheniya politicheskogo islama v Severnoi Afrika [Political Islam Movements in North Africa], Moscow, 2000.

4. Guchetl G. I. Democratization in the Arab world: the experience of Tunisia and Syria. Moscow, 1999.

5. Javarneh Saleh. Jordan: experience of socio-political development, Moscow, 1997.

6. Vostochny mir: opyty obshchestvennoy transformatsii [Eastern World: Experiences of social transformation], Moscow, 2001.

7. Maksimenko V. I. Politicheskie partii v perekhodnom obshchestve [Political parties in the Transition Society], Moscow, 1985.

8. Nationalism and Fundamentalism in the Middle East, Moscow, 1999.

9. Sapronova M. A. Politika i konstitutsionnyi protsess v Algire [Politics and Constitutional process in Algeria]. Moscow, 1999.

10. Evolyutsiya politicheskikh sistem na Vostoke [Evolution of Political systems in the East], Moscow, 1999.

Go to topic 7:

Required form

1. Islam and Islamism. Ed. Kozhokina E. M., Maksimenko V. I. Moscow: Russian Institute for Strategic Studies, 1999.

2. Islam and extremism in the Middle East. Ed. - comp. Arunova M. R. Moscow: Institute for the Study of Israel and the Middle East, 2001.

3. A threat to Islam or a threat to Islam? Moscow: Evraziya Publ., 2001.

Additional information

1. Esposito J.L. The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? N.Y., Oxford University Press, 1992.

2. Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. Ed. W.Maley. Lahore: Vanguard Books, 1998.

3. Roy O. The Failure of Political Islam. L., Taurus, 1994.

4. Sivan E. Radical Islam: Medieval Theology and Modern Politics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.

Go to topic 8:

1. Middle East Settlement: Problems and Prospects, Moscow: Nauchnaya kniga Publ., 1998.

2. The State of Israel (handbook), Moscow, 1986.

3. Dmitriev E. D. The Palestinian Tragedy, Moscow, 1986.

4. Ignatenko A. A. Khalifi bez khalifata [Caliphs without a caliphate], Moscow, 1988.

5. Islamism and extremism in the Middle East, Moscow, 2001.

6. Kiselev V. I. The Palestinian problem in international relations: regional aspect, Moscow, 1988.

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7. Kosach G. Natsionalnaya samoidentifikatsiya na fonte dvizheniya k mira: primere Palestina [National self-identification against the background of the movement to peace: the example of Palestine]. Problemy natsional'nogo samoopredeleniya na sovremennom etape (sbornik statei), Moscow: IV RAN, 2000.

8. Kosach G. Organization for the Liberation of Palestine: the path to the creation of national statehood / / Middle East and Modernity. Issue 11. Moscow, 2001.

9. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya na Mne i Srednego Vostoka i politika Rossii na rubezhe XXI veka [International Relations in the Middle East and Russia's policy at the turn of the XXI century].

10.Polyakov K. I., Khasyanov A. Zh. Deyatel'nost ' islamskikh organizatsii posle razdeleniya Palestva i v nachal'nom period intifada [Activities of Islamic organizations after the partition of Palestine and in the initial period of the intifada]. Issue 10. Moscow, 2001

11. Primakov E. M. Anatomiya meshnadochnogo konfliktsiya [Anatomy of the Middle East conflict], Moscow, 1978.

12. Pyrlin E. D. 100 let protivoborstva [100 years of confrontation]. Genesis, evolution, current state and prospects of solving the Palestinian problem, Moscow, 2001.

13. Semenovykh V. Hezbollah / / Asia and Africa today. 1989. N 1.

14. Chistyakov A. F. The Palestinian-Israeli conflict: from negotiations to confrontation. Issue No. 12. Moscow, 2001.

Back to topic 9:

Required form

1. Babkin S. E. Religious extremism in Algeria, Moscow, 2001.

2. Babkin S. E. Dvizheniya politicheskogo islama v Severnoi Afrika [Political Islam Movements in North Africa], Moscow, 2000.

3. Virabov A. G. Istoki islamskogo ekstremizma v Algire [The origins of Islamic extremism in Algeria].

4. Dolgov B. V. Pervye itogi vnutrennoi i vneshnoi politiki prezidenta Boutefliki [The first results of President Bouteflika's domestic and foreign policy]. Issue 11. Moscow, 2001.

5. Komar V. I. Vlast', islam i obshchestvo v Algire [Power, Islam and Society in Algeria] (Uchenye zapiski Instituta Afrika RAN, Issue 8). Moscow, 1999.

6. Kobishchanov Yu. M. Modern Islam in the countries of North Africa // North Africa: Islam and Society, Moscow, 1999.

7. Landa R. G. Alzhir i problemy bezopasnosti Merranean'ya [Algeria and the security problems of the Mediterranean region].

8. Landa R. G. Islamic fundamentalism //Questions of history. 1993. N 1.

9. Tegin Yu. L. K probleme kompleksnogo issledovaniya islamskogo ekstremizma [On the problem of complex research of Islamic extremism]. Issue 7. Moscow, 1999.

10. Tkachenko A. A. Strany Severnoi Afrika: evolyutsiya modeli obshchestvennogo ustroystva i mesto islamskikh tsennostei v obshchestve [Countries of Northern Africa: evolution of the model of social structure and the place of Islamic values in Society].

11. Tkachenko A. A. Perspektivy integratsii stran Severnoi Afrika i ES [Prospects of integration of the countries of North Africa and the EU]. Issue 4. Moscow, 1997.

Additional information

1. Alzhir (handbook), Moscow, 1997.

2. Africa: Features of Political Culture (Scientific Notes of the Institute of Africa of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Issue 12). Moscow, 1999.

3. Arab countries of West Asia and North Africa. Issue 3. Moscow, 1999.

4. Babkin S. E., Mironova E. I. Algeria: three years on the brink of Civil war, Moscow, 1995.

5. Babkin S.E., Mironova E. I. Alzhir: poisk grazhdanskogo soglasiya [Algeria: Search for civil consent], Moscow, 1999.

6. Guchetl G. I. Democratization in the Arab world: the experience of Tunisia and Syria. Moscow, 1999.

7. Komar V. I. North Africa: National models of Political culture, Moscow, 1997.

8. Kovtunov A. G. Problemy integratsii stran Maghreb [Problems of Integration of Maghreb countries], Moscow, 1998.

9. Korovikov A.V. Islamic extremism in Arab countries, Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1990.

page 103


10. Landa R. G. Istoriya Algira [History of Algeria]. XX century. Moscow, Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1999.

11. Maltsev Yu. M. The Maghreb countries in Regional and world politics, Moscow, 1994.

Back to topic 10:

Required form

1. Ermakov I., Mikulsky D. Islam v Rossii i Srednoi Azii [Islam in Russia and Central Asia], Moscow, 1993.

2. Islam in the post-Soviet Space: an inside view. Ed. Malashenko A.V. and Olcott Marty Brill, Moscow, 2001.

3. Political Islam and Conflicts in Russia and Central Asia. Ed. by Lena Johnson, Murad Esenov, Stockholm: The Swedish Institute of International Affairs, 1999.

Additional information

1. Olcott Martha Brill, Natalia Udalova-Ewart. Drug trafficking on the Great Silk Road / / Security in Central Asia. 2000. N 2.

2. Islam and Central Asia: An Enduring Legacy or an Evolving Threat? Eds, Roald Sagdeev and Susan Eisenhower, Washington, D.C: Center for Political and Strategic Studies, 2000.

3. Ro'i Yaacov. Islam in the CIS. A Threat to Stability? London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2001.

4. Russia and Asia. The Emerging Security Agenda. Ed. By Gennady Chufrin. SIPRI, 1999.

5. Khamraev Farkhad. Radical Islam as a Threat to the Security of the Central Asian States: a View from Uzbekistan // The Security of the Caspian Sea Region. Ed. by Gennady Chufrin. SIPRI, 2001.

Magazines:

1. Central Asia and the Caucasus (Socio-political Journal), Sweden.

Back to topic 11:

1. Afganistan: voina i problemy mira [Afghanistan: War and Peace Problems], Moscow, 1998.

2. Globalization and the search for national identity in the countries of the East, Moscow, 1999.

3. Druzhilovsky S. B. The Turkish Republic in the 80-90th years. Moscow, 1998.

4. Druzhilovsky S. B. Socio-political history of Iran (late 70s-80s). Moscow, 1989.

5. Druzhilovsky S. B. The Islamic Republic of Iran at the turn of the 80-90th years. Moscow, 1992.

6. Iran: Islam and Power, Moscow, 2001.

7. Islam i politika [Islam and Politics], Moscow, 2001.

8. Muslim countries near the borders of the CIS, Moscow, 2001.

9. Spolnikov V. N. Afghanistan: Islamic Counterrevolution, Moscow, 1987.

10. Turkey between Europe and Asia, Moscow, 2001.

11. Khatami M. Islam, dialog i grazhdanskoe obshchestvo [Islam, Dialogue and Civil society], Moscow, 2001.

Back to topic 12:

Required form

1. Gordon-Polonskaya L. R. Muslim trends in the public life of India and Pakistan, Moscow, 1963.

2. Mikaelyan N. R. Socio-political movements and religious tradition in India and Pakistan, Moscow, 1989.

3. Pleshov O. V. Islam i demokratiya [Islam and democracy]. The experience of Pakistan, Moscow: IV RAS, 1996.

4. Pleshov O. V. Islam, islamizm i nominalnaya demokratiya v Pakistane [Islam, Islamism and nominal democracy in Pakistan].

5. Sumsky V. V. Nationalism and authoritarianism. Political and ideological processes in Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, Moscow, 1987.

Additional information

1. Jalal A. Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

page 104


2. Pakistan. Founders' Aspirations and Today's Reality. Ed. H. Malik, Karachi, Oxford University Press, 2001.

3. Saifuddin A. The Roles of Religion and National Identity in Bangladesh. Abo: Abo Academy University Press, 2000.

Back to topic 13:

Required form

1. Ermakov I., Mikulsky D. Islam v Rossii i Srednoi Azii [Islam in Russia and Central Asia], Moscow, 1993.

2. Islam in the post-Soviet Space: an inside view. Ed. Malashenko A.V. and Olcott Marty Brill, Moscow, 2001.

3. Makarov D. V. Official and unofficial Islam in Dagestan, Moscow, 2000.

4. Malashenko A.V. Islamic Revival in modern Russia, Moscow, 1998.

5. Malashenko A.V. Islamic landmarks of the North Caucasus, Moscow, 2001.

Additional information

1. History of religions in Russia (textbook). Ed. Trofimchuk N. A. M., 2001.

2. Muslim spiritual organizations and associations of the Russian Federation, Moscow: Dukhovnoe Upravlenie moslem Evropeyskoy chasti Rossii, 1999.

3. Ro'i Yaacov. Islam in the CIS. A Threat to Stability? London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 2001.

Magazines:

1. Central Asia and the Caucasus (Socio-political Journal), Sweden.

2. Russia and the Muslim World (Bulletin of Abstract and Analytical Information), Moscow.

ADDITIONAL LITERATURE FOR INDEPENDENT IN-DEPTH TRAINING IN THE COURSE

1. Arab East: Islam and Reforms, Moscow, 2000.

2. Bartold V. V. Islam and the culture of Islam, Moscow, 1992.

3. Wahhabis (XVIII-XX centuries). Historical research (compiled by Shumov S., Andreev A.) Moscow, 2002.

4. Efimova L. M. Sovremennyy islam i politika na zarubezhnom Vostoke (uchebnoe posobie) [Modern Islam and Politics in the Foreign East (textbook)]. Moscow: MGIMO, 1986.

5. Dontsov V. E. Modern Islamic movements and organizations in the Middle East in the system of international relations (textbook). Moscow, DA MFA RF, 2001.

6. Zhdanov S. V. Wahhabites and their patrons, Moscow, 2000.

7. Zhdanov N. V., Ignatenko A. A. Islam on the threshold of the XXI century. Moscow, 1989.

8. Ignatenko A. A. Khalifi bez khalifata (Islamic Non-governmental religious and political organizations in the Middle East: history, ideology, activity). Moscow, Nauka, 1988.

9. Iran: The Evolution of Islamic Rule (ed. Mamedova N. M.) Moscow: IV RAS, 1998.

10. Islam i politika (interaction of Islam and politics in the countries of the Near and Middle East, the Caucasus and Central Asia), Moscow: IV RAS, 2001.

11. Islam in the modern politics of the Eastern countries (late 70s-early 80s of the XX century). Editor's note. Polonskaya L. R., Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1986.

12. Islam i sovremennye mezhdunarodnye otnoshenii [Islam and modern international relations]. Dontsov V. E., Moscow: Nauchnaya kniga Publ., 2001.

13. Islam in West Africa (ed. Vasiliev A.M.). Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1988.

14. Kerimov G. M. Shariat [Sharia Law]. The Law of Life of Muslims, Moscow, 1999.

15. Kirillina S. A. Islam in the public life of Egypt (the second half of the XIX-beginning of the XX century). Moscow: Nauka, 1989.

page 105


16. Kudryavtsev A.V. The Islamic World and the Palestinian Problem, Moscow, 1990.

17. Landa R. G. Russia and Islam: interaction of cultures. Bulletin of the Society of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 2000.

18. Malashenko A.V. Muslim world of the CIS, Moscow, 1996.

19. Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya na Mne i Srednego Vostoka i politika Rossii na rubezhe XXI veka [International relations in the Middle East and Russia's policy at the turn of the XXI century].

20. Mukhametshin F. M. Vzglyad na islamskim fundamentalizm [A look at Islamic Fundamentalism], Moscow, 1998.

21. Nationalism and Fundamentalism in the Middle East, Moscow: Institute for the Study of Israel and the Middle East, 1999.

22. Politicheskiy Islam i konfliktsii v Evrazii [Political Islam and conflicts in Eurasia]. 1999. N 3 - 5.

23. Religion and secularism in the East (ed. Polonskaya L. R.). Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1993.

24. Religion and Diplomacy (proceedings of the scientific conference). Editor's note. Dolgov K. M. Moscow: DA MFA RF Publ., 2002.

25. The Republic of Iraq in the system of international relations (80 - ies of the XX century-the beginning of the XXI century). Moscow: IV RAS, 2002.

26. Modern Islam: political, ideological and socio-economic problems (collection of scientific works). Ed. Khrustaleva M. A. Moscow: MGIMO, 1990.

27. Socio-political representations in Islam: history and modernity, Moscow, 1987.

28. Ushakov V. A. Iran and the Muslim world (1979-1998), Moscow: Institute for the Study of Israel and the Middle East, 1999.

QUESTIONS FOR SELF-PREPARATION FOR THE TEST

1. Reasons for the politicization of Islam in the last quarter of the 20th century. The concept of "Islamic factor" and "political Islam".

2. The confrontation between fundamentalists and modernists in modern Islam.

3. The role of political Islam in non-Muslim countries.

4. Main characteristics of the Islamic development model.

5. The main factors of increasing the number of Muslims and strengthening the economic potential of Muslim countries at the present stage.

6. Sub-regions of the Muslim area, various approaches to their identification and prospects for evolution within the framework of cultural and historical subareals.

7. The problem of Muslim unity in Islamic doctrine. The Caliphate and the role of the caliph.

8. Pan-Islamism and its content.

9. Reasons for the spread of authoritarian regimes in Muslim countries: their historical, cultural, economic, social, and sociopsychological roots.

10. The emergence of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the main directions of its activities.

11. The Muslim Brotherhood organization: reasons for its creation, ideology, activities, historical significance and role in the Muslim world.

12. Islam and features of modernization in the Muslim world. Historical stages of Arab society's perception of elements of Western democracy.

13. Islamic fundamentalism in Egypt in the 1970s and 1980s. President Hosni Mubarak's policy towards Islamists in the 1990s.

14. The influence of Islam on the constitutional construction and foreign policy doctrine of Arab countries. Implementation of the Arab-Islamic component in the foreign policy of Arab countries.

15. Reasons for the emergence of modern Islamic radicalism. Activities and orientation of the main radical groups.

page 106


16. Successes and failures of the Islamic radical project, its future prospects.

17. Combating international terrorism under the flag of Islam: problems and prospects.

18. The reasons for the sharp increase in Islamism in Palestine in the 1980s and 1990s in its extreme manifestations.

19. The main Islamist organizations of the Palestinians: their origin, orientation, methods of struggle.

20. The Algerian civil War and its impact on security in the Mediterranean.

21. The state and political Islam in the countries of North Africa: stages and features of mutual relations.

22. Islam in the political life of Iran after the victory of the Islamic Revolution and at the present time.

23. Political activities of Islamists in Turkey.

24. The role of Islam and traditionalism in the political life of Afghanistan.

25. Islam in the national liberation movement in colonial India.

26. The Muslim theological class and the activities of religious and political parties and organizations in Pakistan and Bangladesh.

27. Reasons for the revival of Islam in Central Asia and Russia, its politicization and radicalization.

28. "Unofficial Islam" and features of its political manifestation in the Russian Federation.


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