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The XVII century in the history of China was a turning point, rich in various events that largely determined the entire further course of the development of Chinese civilization. The most important of these events were: the crisis of the ruling Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), the peasant war of Li Zicheng (1628-1646), the conquest of China by the Manchus and the establishment of the new Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). A great deal of research has been written about this period of history by such venerable sinologists as L. A. Berezny, A. A. Bokshchanin, B. G. Doronin, L. I. Duman, G. V. Efimov, V. P. Ilyushechkin, N. M. Kalyuzhnaya, A. G. Krymov, V. S. Myasnikov, O. E. Nepomnin, V. N. Nikiforov, and L. S. Kolesnikov. Simonovskaya, V. Ya. Sidikhmenov, E. P. Stuzhina, S. L. Tikhvinsky, N. I. Fomina, and others. D. M. Voskresensky, T. A. Malinovskaya, V. V. Malyavin, O. M. Fishman and others devoted their works to the culture and art of the 17th century. In this paper, we propose to look at this era "from the inside", through the eyes of a contemporary of the events, a scholar-historian and talented poet Wu Weiye 1, who called his works "poetic chronicle", since most of them are devoted to the events of those crucial years and the fate of the people around the poet.

According to the famous British historian of the last century A. J. Toynbee, "there are many angles from which the human mind looks at the universe", and the view from another point of view is designed to "add its own pitcher of water to the great and ever-expanding river of knowledge, which is fed by water from countless similar jugs" [Toynbee, 1996, p. 21].

It should be noted here that Wu Weiye's contribution to the Chinese historiography of the 17th century is sufficiently studied in the works of B. G. Doronin (Doronin, 1982: 52-68). We offer here an image of the epoch created by the poet's artistic imagination, because, according to the apt observation of the French philosopher Rene Descartes (1596-1650),

1 Wu Weiye (1609-1671) was a prominent public figure, scholar, historian, poet, playwright, and artist of the 17th century. Middle name-Jungong, creative pseudonym-Meicun. Wu Weiye was born in 1609 in Taicang County, China. Jiangsu in the family of an official. At the age of 22, he received the highest academic degree of jinshi, and at the age of 23, he became an editor at the Hanlin Academy. Later, he held responsible posts: mentor at the School of the Sons of the Fatherland (Guo Zijian) and Deputy chief caretaker of the heir's palaces. He consistently opposed the dominance of the eunuch group at court. He was one of the most active members of the society "Vozrozhdenie" (Fu-she). After the fall of the Ming Dynasty, he retired and wandered around the country for several years. In 1653, he was invited to serve by the Qing Emperor Shizu (1638-1661) (Shunzhi's reign-1644-1661). However, he did not serve long and retired under the pretext of his mother's illness. He died in his native land in 1671.

Wu Weiye's legacy includes: "Brief Notes on the Suppression of Robbers" ("Suikou jilue"), "Notes on the Revival Society" ("Fushe ji"), "Notes on What was Heard in Luqiao" ("Luqiao jiwen"), and the Zaju plays: "The Palace that Meets Spring" ("Linchunge") and" Tongtian Tower "("Tongtiantai"), as well as more than a thousand poetic works (gutishi and jinipishi forms) collected in 18 juans.


page 5

"great thoughts are more often found in the works of poets than in the works of philosophers. This is because poets write inspired by the imagination. The germs of knowledge are in us like fire in a flint; philosophers cultivate them with the help of reason, but poets kindle them with the help of imagination, so that they are more likely to ignite " [cit. по: http://www.kulichki.com/inkwell/special/filosofy/dekart.htm].

In the Chinese tradition, history has always been viewed as a cyclical process, similar to the natural cycles of changing seasons or times of day. O. E. Nepomnin begins his book "The History of China: The Qing Era" with the problem of cyclicity in the history of China, highlighting a total of eight dynastic cycles with certain time frames and characteristics of various phases of the cycle. "In a brief summary, the nature of each such cycle is quite standard and looks like this. Each cycle began after another military and political catastrophe, i.e. turmoil, peasant war, a period of popular uprisings or nomad invasions, when sometimes more than 70% of the entire population of the country died. The cycle began with the establishment of a new dynasty and with a phase of general destruction. It was replaced by the recovery stage..."[Nepomnin, 2005, p. 7]. Then the crisis phase came again, gradually developing into a catastrophe, eventually leading to a change of dynasty.

In the works of some Western historians, in particular A. J. Toynbee, there is also an idea, if not about the cyclical nature, then, in any case, about the repeatability of events in history: "Isn't a story in itself... a picture of the entire universe in motion and within the framework of four-dimensional space-time? And in this all-encompassing panorama, are there not many such events that-as both the staunchest proponent of free will and the most avid determinist will inevitably have to admit-are inexorably repetitive and absolutely predictable?" [Toynbee, 1996, p. 36].

The same idea of" relentless repetition " of events:



"The ups and downs, the unification, the separation of people,
How can you find out the reasons for this?"
2


or:



"Events in the world are changeable -
Troubles arise in an instant..."

as well as parallels between natural and historical cycles:



"The decline of a dynasty is like the withering of grass in autumn",

- they are a constant leitmotif of all the poetic creativity of Wu Weiye. Perhaps this attitude to the determinism of the historical process is the reason why the poet served two dynasties, being equally critical of both the old and new authorities?

The motif of man's impotence before the elements - whether it is a sea storm or the "wind of history" - also sounds with the same regularity in poems:



"Everything follows the will of Heaven, not my wishes.";
"I can only sigh about everything...";
" Human life is worth very little...";
" What can I do - an old, sick person?".

And even the famous military commander Wu Sangui (1612-1678), about whose role in the conquest of China by the Manchus, scientists still disagree [see, for example: Doronin, 1991, part 2, p. 16-21; Chernyshev, 1991, part 2, p. 21-28; Bokshchanin and Nepomnin, 2002,

2 Works of Wu Weiye are quoted here and further from: [Wu Meicun quangji, 1936] (translated by the author - E. B.).


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p. 183-190; Usov, 2006, p. 264], in the poem "Song of Yuanyuan" ("Yuanyuan qu") also looks like a toy in the hands of fate:



"There was nothing the hero could do - he could only feel strongly!";
"Hoping for an early meeting, the general greatly miscalculated!".

The poet's vision of rapid social changes in the image of wind, storm, storm, and bad weather also seems remarkable to us:



"Enmity spun, a furious wind whipped up the fallen leaves...";
" Hurry up! The sunny landscape is blown away by a sad wind...";
"Only the wind is heard, walking through the silent expanses...".

Almost three hundred years from now, in faraway Russia, poets such as A. Blok and B. Pasternak, who are unique in their creative talents, will perceive the revolutionary element in the form of a storm, a blizzard. The blizzard will become the main image-symbol in the poem "The Twelve" and in the novel "Doctor Zhivago". In the words of academician D. S. Likhachev, the hero of Pasternak's novel "sees, perceives, and even participates in revolutionary events, but participates only as a grain of sand caught in a storm, whirlwind, or snowstorm" (Likhachev, 1988, p.9).

We see here how surprisingly the poetic worldview of different authors sometimes coincides in different parts of the world in different epochs.

Returning to the idea of the repetition of history, to the fact that, in the words of the author of books on Chinese culture of the XVII century V. V. Malyavin, "in China everything has always been "already there" and everything was subject, if we use one of the formulas of tradition, to "everyday renewal" "(Malyavin, 1995, p. 7), we can to understand the attraction of all Chinese poets to allusions without exception. As Wu Weiye writes in the poem "Fanqinghu Lake" :



"To help the present, I draw on the past,
I explain everything in a poem with a five-word line,
I generalize what I know,
So that the old virtues are not forgotten."

What episodes from more than four thousand years of Chinese history most often come to the writer's attention? As you can easily see, these are periods of" turmoil", when the crisis of the dynasty passes into the stage of catastrophe and the former dynasty has no chance to survive. This is the Eastern or Late Han period (25-220), the crisis phase of the Tang Era (618-907). For both of these periods of history, as well as for the crisis period of the Ming Dynasty, which the poet witnessed, the most striking and characteristic feature of the political situation was the dominance of eunuchs at court. Without delving into the causes and consequences of this phenomenon, which is specific for China (and not only for it) [for more information, see: Bokshchanin and Nepomnin, 2002; Kniga Dvortsovykh intrigu..., 2002; Usov, 2006], I will give just one quotation that shows the situation in which the poet found himself at the beginning of his official and literary career. careers:

"Under the last Ming emperors, eunuchs discussed secret cases, passed sentences, pardoned those sentenced to death, and managed the capital's prison. All this they did independently, without the participation of court dignitaries... It was the Eunuchs who prepared drafts of imperial decrees, managed state seals, and announced resolutions of the Son of Heaven... The eunuchs held the imperial treasury and treasury in their hands, were in charge of the tombs of the imperial family, the state silk-weaving manufactories of Nanjing, Suzhou and Hangzhou, the maritime customs and salt mines." In short, "at the head of the Ming Empire was the "third sex", which realized monarchical power. There is a situation when "the retinue rules the king" and "the tail turns the dog" "[Bokshchanin and Nepomnin, 2002, pp. 92-93]. At the same time, eunuchs, as a rule, were people of low origin who did not receive any special education.

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castration was the only way for them to make a career at court. They were afraid of any reforms that might limit their power, and so in 1624 - 1626 they brutally defeated the progressive Donglin group, which tried to influence the politics of the court, seeking the appointment of progressive and honest candidates who wrote political treatises and reports to the emperor.

Wu Weiye, who received the highest academic degree (jinshi) at the age of 22 and took up a high position at Hanlin Academy at the age of 23, also tried to strike at the omnipotence of the" group of treacherous " (sepai) by writing a report to the emperor about violations of official ethics, the removal of top personnel from posts and other abuses committed by the chief chancellor Wen Tizhen and his associate Zhang Zhifa. However, the emperor, who was the plaything of the eunuchs, did not accept the report, and Wu Weiye was soon forced to resign his position.

Subsequently, during the Southern Ming period, Wu Weiye again opposed the "eunuch party", in particular Ma Shiying, the chancellor and mentor of the heir to the throne, and Ruan Dacheng, who was then the Minister of War. Once again, the poet failed to "reach out to the emperor." He retired and devoted his life to literature, continuing to express his views and civic position indirectly, through the lips of lyrical characters.

So, in the poem "I listen to the Taoist nun Bian Yujing playing Qin" ("Ting nui-daoshi Bian Yujing Tanqin ge"), the poet tells about the unprecedented untimely action of the Yuzhnomin court organized by eunuchs: at a time when the peasant rebels were not yet completely defeated, and half the country was already occupied by the Manchus, the courtiers suddenly, they took care of the problem of continuing the imperial family and, for this purpose, replenishing the highest harem. Messengers were sent out all over the country to find suitable girls. Most noble families were quick to marry off their daughters. The same unfortunate women, whom their parents did not have time to marry off or hide, followed in rich carts to the palace; however, there they did not even have time to see the august spouse, because by that time "the northern troops (Manchus - E. B.) had already approached Guab" and "The Serene Lord had already galloped away on a jasper-gray horse". The heroine of the poem, a princess of Zhongshan, had just arrived at the palace and was rudely flogged out by a guard. Not daring to return home (and perhaps her family was also hiding somewhere "among the rivers and lakes"), the girl died, unable to withstand the hardships of wartime. Her tragic fate was just one grain of sand in a cloud of similar events that were thrown into the air by a hurricane.

The poem "Donglai" is dedicated to the oppressive atmosphere of total surveillance, universal hatred and denunciation that prevails at the court of the agonizing Ming dynasty, telling about two brothers named Jiang, the eldest of whom, Jiang Cai, trying to expose the machinations of a group of eunuchs who manipulated the emperor, "knocked too hard at the gates and reproached the higher ones." Despite the fact that the court hypocritically announced the attraction of new people to high positions and the encouragement to "correct omissions", in fact it turned out to be a trap and all those who sought to "correct omissions" paid cruelly for it. Jiang Cai received a hundred sticks, was demoted and exiled.

The "Son of Heaven" did not like criticism, he agreed to listen only to flattering courtiers who praised his talents and offered him more and more entertainment and entertainment. The poem "Wang Lan" tells about a singer, for the sake of which young officials forgot about their duties, were late for work and who, according to the poet, was able to distract even the "Brightest" from state affairs, incline to extravagance and excesses. Here, the poet bitterly states that "all sorts of visiting celebrities and masters of original genres are now in fashion", in other words, the emperor and his retinue are busy only with entertainment, having given the reins of government into the hands of eunuchs.

page 8

As the antithesis of the self-serving seductress Wang Lan, the poem " The Palace of Eternal Harmony "("Yonghegong") with great sympathy displays the image of the favorite of the last Ming Emperor Syzong, bearing the surname Tian. Having understood the complexity of the situation in which the supreme ruler of China found herself, the woman seeks to help her husband as much as possible: she introduces a strict economy regime in the palace, significantly reduces the cost of food and clothing, and then taxes begin to be levied on numerous imperial relatives. However, all these measures could not save the situation, the dynasty was doomed to perish.

That the dynasty was coming to an end, Wu Weiye realized with his historian's instincts long before the Manchus occupied the capital. As early as 1640-1642, a state of emergency was declared in the Jinzhou region, where large contingents of troops were concentrated at that time. The cities of Songshan, Xingshan, and Jingzhou were besieged, and they stopped receiving allowances, that is, the authorities abandoned their army and population to their fate; at the same time, the desertion of higher ranks began, and as a result, 130 thousand people died in one day when the Manchus took Songshan. Even then, it became clear that the war was lost:



"One hundred and thirty thousand soldiers died in one day;
And the Hunhe River, overflowing with blood, flowed even faster.
Weren't these events extraordinary,
The kind that changes everything in an instant?"

("Grieving for Songshan") ("Songshan Ai")

As a high-ranking official, Wu Weiye couldn't help but see corruption and money-grabbing in the upper echelons of power. In his poem "The Old Songstress of Linhuai" ("Linhuai laoji xing"), he depicts the image of the military commander Liu Zeqing, who built himself a residence in Linhuai that was as luxurious as the imperial palace, and spent his time there in idleness and carousing:



"They don't compete in strength, they only compete in singing and dancing."

When traveling around the country, this "knight errant", as the poet ironically calls him, does not take armed soldiers with him, with him always only "a small detachment of beauties".

The general was ready to do anything, agreed to serve anyone, just to save his life and property. When he heard that the Manchu troops were approaching, he immediately left Huai'an, loading his goods into carts and taking his wives and children with him. At first, he took refuge in the temple, planning to leave later by sea. But he did not manage to sail away on the ship, as a storm broke out at sea, and he was forced to return to port, having hung out a white flag in advance and immediately agreeing to go to the service of the Manchus. However, even this did not help him save his life: in 1648, he was executed, accused of involvement in a conspiracy against the authorities.

The corrupt general is contrasted in the poem by his girlfriend, hetaera Liu Dongping, who not only remained loyal to the Ming dynasty, but also agreed, risking her life, to cross the front line with the rebels and get into the palace to get reliable information about the fate of the imperial family. It goes without saying that both the general and the hetaera, despite their real names, are only artistic images created by the poet's imagination and do not pretend to historical authenticity, as well as a romantic description of a dangerous night ride across the front line. Nevertheless, these images and episodes, which have a documentary basis and are embodied by the artist in his works, more visibly recreate the atmosphere of the era than the stingy lines of chronicles.

The poet also gives his own interpretation of the famous episode in the history of the conquest of China related to the" betrayal " of General Wu Sangui, who made an alliance with the Manchus and let the Manchu cavalry pass through the Shanhaiguan outpost. This episode

page 9

It is mentioned in all studies on the history of China of this period, in the books "Faces of the Middle Kingdom", "Wives and Concubines of the Middle Kingdom". Historians put forward many versions that explain the behavior of Wu Sangui at that time, but the poet prefers the most romantic of them.

In China, since ancient times, it was believed that the fate of an entire state could depend on one beautiful woman: she could destroy it or save it. Thus, there is a well-known story of the beautiful Wang Zhaojun, given by the Han emperor Yuandi (48-33 BC) to the leader of the Hun tribes to stop their raids; the story of the beautiful Xi Shi (Chunqiu era), which the ruler of Yue gave to the ruler of Wu in order to distract him from military affairs and later win over him. The same fateful role in the history of the country is assigned by Wu Weiye to the beautiful hetaera Chen Yuanyuan, with whom, according to the romantic plot of the poem "Song of Yuanyuan", General Wu Sangui fell madly in love. Instead of going to the border, he spent time with her at feasts at the home of a relative of the emperor, the patron saint of singing girls, Tian Wan, unable to tear himself away from the beautiful girl. Then, after sending the girl to his father's house, he hurried to the border and there received news that his father's house was captured by "robbers", and the girl he loved was in the hands of their leader Li Zicheng.

Intending first to negotiate with Li Zicheng about a joint campaign against the Manchus, he suddenly changed his mind, abandoned all previous agreements (at this news, an angry Li Zicheng executed his father and all the relatives of Wu Sangui) and went to an alliance with the Manchus. He was blinded by his jealousy:



The cap went up on his hair, which was standing on end with anger
At the news of the possible loss of the beloved."

After Li Zicheng left the capital, Wu Sangui sent hundreds of people searching for his beloved across the country. When he found her, he gave her an unusually lavish reception: the entire road for many kilometers was lit by hundreds of thousands of wax candles at night, and during the day soldiers walked along it to the sound of drums and flutes. Having met, the lovers never parted again: Yuanyuan accompanied her hero everywhere.

And although many innocent people died as a result of these events, the name of Wu Sangui became a symbol of betrayal for many, the name of the singer Chen Yuanyuan forever went down in history as the name of a woman who changed the fate of the country - despite all this, the poem defends the human right to feelings, its main leitmotif is love, which justifies everything. It is interesting that in one of the articles devoted to this poem, a Chinese literary critic compares Yuanyuan with the Greek beauty Elena, who caused the Trojan War to break out [Chen Jiuyuan, 1992, p.76].

After the establishment of a new dynasty in the country, the situation begins to stabilize. Despite the strict rules and laws imposed by the Manchus that restrict the rights of the Chinese population and regulate all aspects of life (from the order for all men to wear a braid and the prohibition of wearing clothes of the previous dynasty, and ending with severe punishment for any expression of dissent through the so-called written courts - wenziyu), the rapid economic and cultural development of at the end of the XVI century. and slightly slowed down during the "troubles", continues. Cities are still growing, and urban culture is developing. "An important factor contributing to the development of culture, and urban culture in particular, is the extraordinary flourishing of the written word, as a result of the rapid growth of printing" [Voskresensky, 1969, p. 331].

Such important phenomena in public life, of course, could not pass by the author, who makes up the "poetic chronicle" of the era. In the poem "The Study where Antiquity is Drawn" ("Jigu ge") he writes that "many people have rushed to search for lost volumes, buy them without haggling, copy them, spare no effort, make plates for printing." Many merchants, anticipating large profits, invest in

page 10

construction of printing houses: "Jilin, a rich merchant, rushed to print books urgently." At the same time, pocket-sized books for the poor urban audience begin to be printed.

At the same time, there is also an interest in collecting books, in compiling private libraries with rare publications and rare manuscripts. Among the most famous book collectors of that time, Wu Weiye names Tang Shunzhi and Wang Shizhen, Mao Zijin and Yi Qian Qianyi.

The new ruling dynasty, seeking to control all aspects of life, does not ignore the "book business"either:



"The learned officials of the new dynasty are responsible for the systematization of the heritage,
Valuable books from all eras are brought to the hidden vaults."

"They demanded to bring books from all regions
In a vault on a famous mountain.
Their consolidated catalog is made in strict secrecy
In the inner temple."

As you know, under the Kangxi Emperor, a "Highly approved collection of books in four sections" ("Siku quanyiu") was compiled. But how can you censor works written hundreds of years ago? After all, many books that have become classics contain liberties, while others praise the former, originally Chinese, rulers. For this purpose, the method of "text comparison", which has long been practiced in China, is suitable. There was even a certain ritual in which two readers faced each other - one read the text aloud, and the other checked the correctness of the copy. Under the guise of such a check, it was possible to remove unwanted lines from the texts, correct names, and change the course of events. The poet writes about it like this:



"A decree was received to correct the books again
With gold seals on purple cords.
Facts from the past can be changed,
If you write on yellow paper."

And scientists are trying their best:



"Historians have surpassed Shenshao in the compilation of facts
, and caught up with Loshen himself in the discussion of norms and rules."

In his poem, Wu Weiye examines and evaluates from different angles the processes of literacy and printing, book collecting, and the attention of the authorities to cultural heritage. In addition, he traces how people treated books in the past: once the poor sewed their trousers out of book bags, and used wooden books for kindling; however, there were always people who were ready to sacrifice their lives for books (for example, Fusheng, who hid precious volumes in the wall when books were burned on Qin Shihuang's orders). Now, according to the poet's observations, the attitude to books is different, "commercial": some, giving books, make a career ("presenting a book is like asking for a promotion"), others, publishing popular works, make fortunes.

Even the few quotes given in this article from Wu Weiye's creative legacy show that it covers the most diverse aspects of contemporary reality, and both emperors and peasants became his heroes. Authentic events and images of people from different social strata, features and signs of living history - all this is reflected in his "poetic chronicle", dedicated to a dramatic and unquestionable period of history, which is constantly in the center of attention of both domestic and foreign sinology.

page 11

list of literature

Berezny L. A. China of the XVI-XVII centuries: a harbinger of modernization? // China. Chinese civilization and the World (History, present, prospects). Moscow, 1995.

Collection of reports of participants of the V International Scientific Conference, Part II, Moscow, 1994.

Bokshchanin A. A., Nepomnin O. E. Faces of the Middle Kingdom, Moscow, 2002.

Voskresenskiy D. N. Osobennosti kul'tury Kitay v XVII veka i nekotorye novye tendentsii v literaturei IIXVII vek v mirovom literaturnom razvitie [Features of Chinese Culture in the 17th century and some new trends in literature]. Moscow, 1969.

Doronin B. G. U Weye - istorik [U Weye-historian] / / Historiography and source studies of Asian and African countries. Issue VI. L., 1982.

Doronin B. G. The Year "jia-shen" (1644-1645): some problems of history and historiography// Society and the State in China / Proceedings of the 22nd Scientific Conference, Part 2. Moscow, 1991.

The Book of Palace intrigues. Eunuchs at the helm of power / Under the general editorship of D. N. Voskresensky, Moscow, 2002.

Kryukov M. V., Malyavin V. V., Sofronov M. V. Ethnic history of the Chinese at the turn of the Middle Ages and Modern Times. Moscow, 1987.

Likhachev D. S. Preface to B. L. Pasternak's novel "Doctor Zhivago" / / Novy Mir, 1988, No. 1.

Malyavin V. V. Kitay v XVI - XVII vekakh [China in the XVI-XVII centuries]. Moscow, 1995.

Malyavin V. V. Sumerki Dao, Moscow, 2000.

Malinovskaya T. A. Kitayskaya drama tszaju XVII veka [Chinese Drama of the 17th century tszaju]. Literatura i kul'tura Kitay [Literature and Culture of China], Moscow, 1972.

Nepomnin O. E. Istoriya Kitay [History of China]. Epoch of the Qing. XVII-beginning of the XX century. Moscow, 2005.

Ming Qing shiliao. (Materials on the history of the Ming and Qing dynasties). Shanghai, 1951.

New History of China / Edited by S. L. Tikhvinsky, Moscow, 1972.

Sidikhmenov V. Ya. Manchurian Rulers of China, Moscow, 1985.

Simonovskaya L. V. Kitay pod vlast ' manzhurskoi dinastii [China under the rule of the Manchurian Dynasty].

Tikhvinsky S. L. Manchurian Rule in China, Moscow, 1966.

Toynbee A. J. Civilizatsiya pered sudom istorii [Civilization before the Court of History]. SPb., 1996.

Wu Meicun quanji (Complete Works of Wu Meicun). Shanghai, 1936.

At Meicun nianpu's. Ma Daoyuan bian (Biography of Wu Meicun) / Comp. Ma Daoyuan. Shanghai, 1935.

Usov V. N. Wives and concubines of the Middle Kingdom, Moscow, 2006.

Fitzgerald Ch. P. History of China, Moscow, 2004.

Fomina N. I. Fight against the Qing in the South-East of China. Seredina XVII E. M., 1974.

Chernyshev A. I. Imperiya Qing i perekhod U Sanguya na ee side [The Qing Empire and the transition of Wu Sanguya to its side]. Obshchestvo i gosudarstvo v Kitae [Society and State in China]. Materialy 22nd nauchnoy konferentsii, Ch.2, Moscow, 1991.

Zhongguo wenxiu shi (History of Chinese Literature) / Ed. Yuan Xingpei. Beijing, 2003.

Chen Jiuyuan. Qindai shige yu wangxue (Qing poetry and the study of government). Beijing, 1992.

Eminent Chinese of the Ching Period (1644 - 1912) / Ed. by A. W. Hummel. Washington, 1943 - 1944.


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